Title 24 Compliance Options
Mandatory Measures and Compliance Approaches
In addition to the mandatory measures, the Energy Standards provide two
basic methods for complying with low-rise residential energy budgets: the prescriptive
approach and the performance approach. The mandatory measures must be installed witheither of these approaches, but mandatory measures may be superseded by more stringent
measures under either approach.
- The prescriptive approach, composed of a climate zone dependent prescriptive
package is less flexible but simpler than the performance approach.
Each energy component of the proposed building must meet a prescribed minimum
efficiency. The prescriptive approach offers relatively little design flexibility but is easy
- The performance approach is more complicated but offers
considerable design flexibility. The performance approach requires an approved
computer software program that models a proposed building, determines the allowed
energy budget, calculates the energy use of the building, and determines when it
complies with the budget. Compliance options such as window orientation, shading,
thermal mass, zonal control, and house configuration are all considered in the
performance approach. This approach is popular with production home builders
because of the flexibility and because it provides a way to find the most cost-effective
solution for complying with the Energy Standards.
(Excerpted from the CEC Title 24 Residential Compliance Manual)
Title 24 Compliance process
Title 24 Code Enforcement
Complying with Energy Standards in residential buildings involve many
parties. Those involved may include the architect or designer, builder/developer, purchasingagent, general contractor, subcontractor/installer, energy consultant, plan checker,
inspector, Realtor, and owner/first occupant. All these parties must communicate and
cooperate for the compliance and enforcement process to run efficiently.
This phase sets the stage for the type and style of building to be constructed.
Parties associated with this phase must ensure that the building complies with the Energy
Standards and that the significant features required for compliance are documented on the
plans and/or specifications.
During the design process, an energy consultant will typically assist the
building designer by providing energy calculations that determine the effect of building
specifications to ensure that the final building design will comply with the Energy Standards.
Throughout the design phase, energy consultants may suggestrecommendations or alternatives to help the designer achieve compliance.
Any change in the building plans or specifications, during any phase of design or
constructionnecessitatesrecalculation of the building energy compliance and issuance of a revised certificate ofcompliance (CF1R) that is consistent with the revised plans.
When the design is complete, the construction documents are prepared, and the owner or contractorapplies for a building permit. This is generally the last step in a long process of planning anddesign. At this pointconstruction of building(s)can start.
To help the enforcement agency verify that the proposed building complies with the Energy
Standards, a set of compliance documents is submitted with the building permit application.
These documents consist of a certificate of compliance (CF1R), which is required by theEnergy Standards. An energy consultant whounderstands the code and is able to help the project comply with the standards inthe most cost-effective manner should prepares the certificate of compliance documentation.
Local enforcement agencies check plans to ensure that the building design conforms to the
building standards. This check includes health and safety requirements, such as fire and
structural, and the building energy efficiency requirements. The permit applicant should submit accurate, clearly defined plans and specifications. it helpsspeed up the plan check process.
If the information submitted is not complete the plans examiner can request more information. it can be a time-consuming process that could delay the project.
After the plans examiner has approved the plans and specifications for the project, the
enforcement agency may issue the building permit. The building permit is the green light for the contractor to begin the work. Insome cases, the building permits are issued in phases. Sometimes there is a permit for sitework and grading that precedes the permit for actual building construction.
Upon receiving a building permit from the local enforcement agency, the contractor begins
construction. The permit requires the contractor to construct the building in accordance with
the plans and specifications, but often there are variations. Some of these variations are
formalized through change orders. When change orders are issued, it is the responsibility of
the permit applicant to verify that compliance with the code is notcompromised by the change order. In some cases, it will be clear if a change order would
compromise compliance, for instance, when an inexpensive single glazed window is
substituted for a more expensive high-performance window. Field changes that
result in noncompliance require enforcement agency approval of revised plans and revised
energy compliance documentation to confirm that the building still complies with the Energy
During construction the general contractor or specialty subcontractors are required to
complete various certificate(s) of installation (CF2R). These certificates verify that the
contractor is aware of the requirements of the Energy Standards and that they have followed
the Energy Commission-approved procedures for installation.
Enforcement Agency Field Inspection
Local enforcement agency representatives inspect all new buildings to ensure compliance
with the Energy Standards. Field construction changes and noncomplying energy features
require parties associated with previous phases to repeat and revise their original energy
compliance documents, or reinstall building components that meet the building
specifications and energy compliance documents.
Enforcement agencies generally make multiple visits to a building site to verify construction.
The first visit is typically made just before it is time to pour the slab or the building
foundation. At this visit, the building inspector verifies that the proper reinforcing steel is in
place and that necessary wiring and plumbing that will be embedded in the slab meet the
requirements of the standards.
The second visit generally occurs after the walls have been framed, and the HVAC
equipment and ducting, fenestration, lighting cans, electrical wiring, plumbing, and other
services have been constructed or installed. This inspection is recommended to be made
before the insulation is installed, since it is the best time to assure the completion of sealing
and caulking around windows, and the caulking and sealing of any holes bored through the
framing members for installation of hot and cold water piping and electrical wiring.
The third visit is the insulation inspection, which takes place after the wall, ceiling, and floor
insulation have been installed. This inspection occurs before the drywall is installed to verify
that the insulation R-value matches the CF1R form.
The next visit is usually a drywall inspection, where the inspector verifies that the drywall is
installed properly to limit infiltration and exfiltration, especially at locations surrounding
lighting cans, HVAC registers and vents, electrical sockets, and so forth.
The final inspection is conducted after the walls have been closed and the final electrical
and plumbing fixtures are in place. The inspector will verify
that all required CF2R and CF3R forms have been completed, signed, and registered (when
applicable), and that copies of all of these forms have been provided to the building owner.
Field Verification and/or Diagnostic Testing
Some building features require field verification and/or diagnostic testing completed by a
third party-inspector, called a HERS Rater, as a condition for compliance with the standards.
The Energy Commission has established the California Home Energy Rating System
(HERS) program to train and certify HERS Raters who are considered special inspectors by
Most of the typical energy measures thatrequire HERS field verification and/or diagnostic testing involve building envelope, air-conditioning equipmentand forced air ducts that deliver conditioned air to the dwelling. Examples of measuresrequiring HERS verification are Envelope leakage testing and duct sealing.
Approval for Occupancy
In multifamily dwellings of three or more units, the final step in the compliance and
enforcement process is the issuance of an occupancy permit by the enforcement agency.
This is the “green light” for occupants to move in. Single-family homes and duplexes may be
approved for occupancy without an occupancy permit being issued. Often a signed-off final
inspection serves as an approval for occupancy.
At the occupancy phase, the enforcement agency shall require the builder to leave inside
the building all completed, signed, and dated compliance documentation, which includes at
a minimum the CF1R and all applicable CF2R forms. When HERS field verification is
required, a copy of the registered CF3R is also required to be left on site with the
compliance documentation. When registration is required, the CF1R and all required CF2R
compliance documentation shall be registered copies as well. The builder is required to
provide the homeowner with a manual that contains instructions for operating and
maintaining the features of his or her building efficiently.
(Excerpted from the CEC Title 24 Residential Compliance Manual)
Title 24 Compliance documentation
- Title 24 Required Documents
The Energy Standards specify detailed reporting requirements that are intended to provide
design, construction, and enforcement parties with required information to complete the
building process and ensure that the energy features are properly installed. Each party is
accountable for ensuring that the energy features of the building are correctly installed in the
area of responsibility.
Certificate of compliance (CF1R) has following variations based on the kind of work that is being done:
1. Residential Newly Constructed Buildings (CF1R-NCB-01).
2. Residential Additions (CF1R-ADD-01).
3. Residential Alterations (CF1R-ALT-01).
4. Residential HVAC Changeouts (CF1R-ALT-02).
5. Solar (CF1R-SRA-01).
- The certificate of installation (CF2R) is separated into:
2. Lighting (CF2R-LTG).
3. Mechanical (CF2R-MCH).
4. Plumbing (CF2R-PLB).
5. Solar (CF2R-SPV and CF2R-STH).
- (Excerpted from the CEC Title 24 Residential Compliance Manual)